2012 Olympic Medal Count

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Wednesday, July 25, 2012

1920 - Antwerp

The 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp, Belgium

April 20 - September 12, 1920
Mascot - none
29 countries, 2669 athletes (78 women)
19 sports (+2 winter sports), 156 events
Opening - King Albert I of Belgium
Torch lit by - none
Candidates: Amsterdam, Atlanta, Budapest, Cleveland, La Havana, Lyon, Philadelphia
Doves of peace
After an interruption of eight years due to the First World War, the Olympic Games returned to action in Antwerp. The Belgian city, which had been severely bombarded during the war, was chosen to host the Games shortly after the end of the conflict. The Games did not welcome Germany and its allies, and would be organized with one underlying necessity for the 29 nations involved: austerity.
In some senses this Olympiad was historic: the five-ringed Olympic flag and oath - pronounced by Belgian fencer Victor Boin - made their first appearance (even though the oath had been read during the intercalated games in 1906). Another innovation was the public's involvement in the releasing of hundreds of doves during the opening ceremony, symbolizing the return of peace to the continent of Europe.
The United States came top with 40 gold medals, with a total of 94, although the athletics events were ill-attended, notably due to the elevated price of tickets for the competitions. One surprise victor was Finland, mostly thanks to a young long distance specialist - a 23-year-old who won three gold medals and one silver, a certain Paavo Nurmi. The other big Finnish name at these Games was Hannes Kolehmainen, who, having won the 5000 and 10,000 metres in 1912, went on to win the marathon event.
As in Stockholm, the Hawaiian swimmer Duke Kahanamoku was the fastest in the 100m freestyle, while the Italian fencer Nedo Nadi left Antwerp with five titles. His brother Aldo had to make do with 'only' three team titles and an individual silver medal in the sabre event. American boxer Edward Eagan, who won an Olympic title in the light-heavyweight category, became the only athlete to win both summer and winter Olympic titles after his bobsleigh gold medal with three other team members during the Games in Lake Placid (1932). Suzanne Lenglen, the Frenchwoman whose tennis skills had graced and won titles at Wimbledon, went to the Antwerp Games with one aim in mind. In the ten sets played on her journey to olympic gold, the "divine" Lenglen lost only four games.
Overall, the first post-war Games of the modern era allowed the peoples of Europe to find hope and strength in a sporting and spirited atmosphere.
The 1920 Olympic Games followed closely the ending of World War I. The world had seen much bloodshed. Should the aggressors of the war be invited to the Olympic Games? The Olympic ideals stated that all countries should be allowed entrance into the Games. Though Germany, Austria, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Hungary were not forbidden to come, they were also not sent an invitation by the Organizing Committee. These countries were again not invited to the 1924 Olympic Games. In addition, the newly formed Soviet Union decided not to attend. (Athletes from the Soviet Union did not reappear at the Olympics until 1952.)
Since the war had ravaged throughout Europe, funding and materials for the Games was difficult to acquire. When the athletes arrived in Antwerp, construction had not been completed. Besides the stadium being unfinished, the athletes were housed in cramped quarters and slept on folding cots.
Though this year was the first that the official Olympic flag was flown, not many were there to see it. The number of spectators was so low - mainly because people could not afford tickets after the war - that Belgium lost over 600 million francs from hosting the Games.
On a more positive note, the 1920 Games was notable for the first appearance of Paavo Nurmi, one of the "Flying Finns." Nurmi was a runner who was ran like a mechanical man - body erect, always at an even pace. Nurmi even carried a stopwatch with him as he ran so that he could evenly pace himself. Nurmi returned to run in the 1924 and the 1928 Olympic Games winning, in total, seven gold medals.
More than 2,500 athletes competed, representing 29 countries.

125 Men, 7 Women, 20 Open Events
2 Men, 1 Women, 1 Open Events (+ 2 Wintersports)
Track Cycling, Freestyle Wrestling introduced
6 new sports - Archery, Boxing, Hockey, Rowing, Rugby, Weightlifting

Fixed Small Birds Target: Edmond van Moer, Belgium
Fixed Small Birds Target Team: Belgium
Fixed Large Birds Target: Edouard Cloetens, Belgium
Fixed Large Birds Target Team: Belgium
Moving Bird Target - 28m: Hubert van Innis, Belgium
Moving Bird Target - 28m Team: The Netherlands
Moving Bird Target - 33m: Hubert van Innis, Belgium
Moving Bird Target - 33m Team: Belgium
Moving Bird Target - 50m: Julien Brule, France
Moving Bird Target - 50m Team: Belgium

100m: Charles Paddock, USA
200m: Allan Woodring, USA
400m: Bevil Rudd, South Africa
800m: Albert Hill, Great Britain
1500m: Albert Hill, Great Britain
5000m: Joseph Guillemot, France
10000m: Paavo Nurmi, Finland
4x100m: United States
4x200m: Great Britain
4x400m: Great Britain
110m Hurdles: Earl Thompson, Canada
400m Hurdles: Frank Loomis, USA
3km Walk: Ugo Frigerio, Italy
10km Walk: Ugo Frigerio, Italy
3000m Steeplechases: Percy Hodge, Great Britain
3000m Team Race: United States
Individual Cross-Country: Paavo Nurmi, Finland
Team Cross-Country: Finland
Marathon: Hannes Kolehmainen, Finland
Pentathlon: Eero Lehtonen, Finland
Decathlon: Helge Lovland, Norway
25.4kg Weight Throw: Patrick McDonald, USA
Discus: Elmer Niklander, USA
Hammer Throw: Patrick Ryan, USA
High Jump: Richmond Landon, USA
Javelin: Jonni Myyra, Finland
Long Jump: William Petersson, Sweden
Pole Vault: Frank Foss, USA
Shot Put: Ville Porhola, Finland
Triple Jump: Vilo Tuulos, Finland
Tug-of-War: Great Britain

50.8kg: Frank DiGennara, USA
53.5kg: Clarence Walker, South FAfrica
57.2kg: Paul Fritsch, France
61.2kg: Samuel A. Mosberg, USA
66.7kg: Alebrt Schneider, Canada
72.6kg: Harry Mallin, Great Britain
79.4kg: Edward Eagan, USA
79.4kg+: Ronald Rawson, Great Britain

Road Race: Harry Stenqvist, Sweden
Team Road Race: France
2000m Tandem Sprint: Harry Ryan/Thomas Lance, GBR
50km Track Race: Henry George, Belgium
Sprint: Maurice Peeters, Netherlands
Team Pursuit: Italy

Ind. Dressage: Janne Lundblad, Sweden
Ind. Jumping: Tommasso Lequio di Assaba, Italy
Ind. 3-day Event: Graf Helmer Morner, Sweden
Figure Riding: T. Bouckaert, Belgium
Team Jumping: Sweden
Team 3-day Event: Sweden
Team Figure Riding: Belgium

Team Foil: Italy
Team Epee: Italy
Team Sabre: Hungary

Men: Gillis Grafstrom, Sweden
Women: Magda Julin, Sweden
Paris: Ludovika Jakobsson/Walter Jakobsson, Finland

Team, men: Belgium

Individual All-Around: Giorgio Zampori, Italy
Team: Italy
Team - Free System: Denmark
Team - Swedish System: Sweden

Field Team, men: Great Britain
Ice Team, men: Canada [WINTER]

Individual: Gustaf Dyrssen, Sweden

Team, men: Great Britain

Single Sculls: John Kelly Sr., USA
Double Sculls: John Kelly Sr./Paul Costello, USA
Coxed Pair: Italy
Coxed Four: Switzerland
Eight: United States

Team, men: United Staetes

6m Class, 1907: Belgium
6m Class: Norway
6.5m Class: Netherlands
7m Class: Great Britain
8m Class, 1907: Norway
8m Class: Norway
10m Class, 1907: Norway
10m Class, 1919: Norway
12m Class, 1907: Norway
12m Class, 1919: Norway
M\FINN 12-ft Dinghy, 1920: Netherlands
M\FINN 18-ft Dinghy: Great Britain
30 sq m Class: Sweden
40 sq m Class: Sweden

100m Run/Deer Single Shot: Otto Olsen, Norway
100m Run/Deer Single Shot Team: Norway
100m Run/Deer Double Shot: Ole Andreas Lilloe-Olsen, NOR
100m Run/Deer Double Shot Team: Norway
25m Rapid Fire Pistol: Guilherme Paraense, Brazil
30m Rapid Fire Pistol Team: USA
50m Free Pistol: Karl Frederick, USA
50m Small-Bore Rifle Standing: Lawrence Nuesslein, USA
50m Small-Bore Rifle Team: United States
300m Military Rifle Prone: Otto Olsen, Norway
300m Military Rifle Prone Team: United States
300m Military Rifle Standing: Carl Osburn, USA
300m Military Rifle Standing Team: Denmark
600m Military Rifle Prone: Carl Hugo Johansson, Sweden
600m Military Rifle Prone Team: United States
300+600m Military Rifle Prone Team: United States
300m Free Rifle 3x40: Morris Fisher, USA
300m Free Rifle Team: United States
Trap: Mark Arie, USA
Trap Team: United States

M\100m Freestyle: Duke Paoa Kahanamoku, USA
M\400m Freestyle: Norman Ross, USA
M\1500m Freestyle: Norman Ross, USA
M\100m Backstroke: Warren Paoa Kealoha, USA
M\200m Breaststroke: Hakan Malmroth, Sweden
M\400m Breaststroke: Hakan Malmroth, Sweden
M\4x200m Freestyle Relay: United States
M\3m Springboard: Louis Kuehn, USA
M\10m Platform: Clarence Pinkston, USA
M\Plain High Diving: Arvid Wallman, Sweden
M\WATER POLO: Great Britain/Ireland
W\100m Freestyle: Ethelda Bleibtrey, USA
W\300m Freestyle: Ethelda Bleibtrey, USA
W\4x100m Freestyle Relay: United States
W\3m Springboard: Aileen Riggin, USA
W\10m Platform: Stefani Fryland-Clausen, Denmark

M/Singles: Louis Raymond, South Africa
M/Doubles: Noel Turnbull & Max Woosnam, GBR
W/Singles: Suzanne Lenglen, France
W/Doubles: Winifred McNair & Kitty McKane, GBR
Mixed Doubles: Max Decugis & Suzanne Lenglen, France

60kg: Francois de Haes, Belgium
67.5kg: Alfred Neuland, Estonia
75kg: Henri Gance, France
82.5kg: Ernest Cadine, France
82.5kg+: Filippo Bottino, Italy

60kg: Charles Edwin Ackerly, USA
67.5kg: Kaarlo Anttila, Finland
75kg: Eino Augusti Leino, Finland
82.5kg: Anders Larsson, Sweden
82.5kg+: Robert Roth, Switzerland

62kg: Oskar David Friman, Finland
67.5kg: Emil Vare, Finland
75kg: Carl Oscar Westergren, Sweden
82.5kg: Claes Johanson, Sweden
82.5kg+: Adolf Valentin Lindfors, Finland